Survey and Questionnaire design
The SARB survey was conducted twice in 2003 and 2004, and then once annually until 2013. Subsequently, the survey has been fielded biennially, with the most recent round carried out in 2017. A total of 15 rounds were conducted to date. The next round will go to the field in 2019.
Questionnaires for the 2003-2013 rounds followed a set of hypotheses relating to:
- Human security
- Political culture
- Cross-cutting political relationships
- Historical confrontation Race relations
- Commitment to socioeconomic development (only 2003).
In 2014, following extensive reliability and validity testing, the survey was updated for a new iteration. Since 2015, the SARB’s questionnaires are built around certain conceptual domains, namely:
- Power relations
- Democratic political culture
- Apartheid legacy
- Racial reconciliation
- Improvement reconciliation
- Perception of change.
From 2003-2013, the survey used a quantitative questionnaire with approximately 100 items, most in the form of five-point Likert scales. Some survey items were amended slightly, following pilot studies, some were removed, and others added over time in response to societal changes. However, most survey items remained the same in order to allow for comparable data. Although the questionnaire had undergone changes from 2013 to 2015, many questions from the 2003-2013 rounds were retained in order to ensure the possibility of time series comparison. The SARB questionnaire is furthermore grounded in relevant qualitative research, conducted by the IJR in the form of focus groups discussions that took place on 2001 and 2011. It is, thus, important to bear in mind that the survey evolved, as South African society evolved, over time.
For ease of reference and usability, we have clustered the various questions under “survey topics”, which do not necessarily reflect the hypotheses and conceptual domains used to design the SARB questionnaire.